List of European countries

List of European course

List of European countries:

What is the European Union, and what does it stand for?

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union made up of 27 member nations who are bound by the membership’s duties and benefits.

 

Every member state is a signatory to the union’s founding treaties and is bound by binding legislation enacted by the common legislative and judicial authorities. All member states must agree unanimously for the EU to implement policy concerning defense and foreign affairs.

 

The European Union was formed in Maastricht, Netherlands, on November 1, 1993.

 

The EU was not nearly as large as it is now before 1993. Economic cooperation between European countries began in 1951, when only Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Germany, the Netherlands, and Italy were involved. As time went on, additional countries opted to join. Croatia is the most recent country to join, having done so in 2013.

 

The EU is made up of 27 European countries:

 

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

The Czech Republic is a country in Central Europe.

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

 

Austria

Austria has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995, with a land area of 83,879 km2 and a population of 8,576,234 people as of 2015. Austrians make up 1.7 percent of the European Union’s overall population. Austria’s capital is Vienna, and German is the official language. Austria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2015 was €337.162 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Austria’s political system is the Federal Parliamentary Republic, and its currency is the Euro (€).

 

Austria has 18 members in the European Parliament and has twice held the rotating chair of the European Council, in 1998 and 2006. Since December 1, 2007, Austria has also been a member of the Schengen Area.

 

Belgium

Belgium has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a total area of 30,528 km2 and a population of 11,258,434 people as of 2015. Belgians make up 2.2% of the EU’s overall population. Belgium’s capital is Brussels, and Dutch, French, and German are the official languages. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €409,407 billion. Belgium joined the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, and its currency is € (Euro). Belgium has a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy as its political system.

 

Between 1958 and 2010, Belgium had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU 12 times, with 21 seats in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, Belgium has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 2007, with a land area of 110,370 km2 and a population of 7,202,198 people as of 2015. Bulgarians make up 1.4 percent of the European Union’s overall population. Bulgaria’s capital city is Sofia, and Bulgarian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €44,162 billion. The Bulgarian Lev is the country’s currency (BGN). Bulgaria’s political system is a parliamentary republic.

Bulgaria has 17 members in the European Parliament and will be the first country to hold the rotating chair of the EU Council in 2018. Bulgaria does not belong to the Schengen Area.

Croatia

Croatia has been a member of the European Union since July 1, 2013, with a land area of 56,594 km2 and a population of 4,225,316 people as of 2015. Croatians make up 0.8% of the EU’s overall population. Croatia’s capital is Zagreb, and Croatian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €43,897 billion. Croatian Kuna HRK is the country’s currency. A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Croatia has 11 members in the European Parliament and will be the first country to hold the rotating presidency of the EU Council in the first half of 2020. Croatia is not a Schengen Area member country.

Cyprus

Cyprus has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 9,251 km2 and a population of 847,008 people as of 2015. Cypriots make about 0.2% of the EU’s overall population. Nicosia is the capital, and Greek is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €17,421 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2008, Cyprus’ currency is the Euro (€). A presidential republic governs the country.

 

Cyprus has six members in the European Parliament and has held the rotating chair of the European Council in 2012. Cyprus is not a Schengen Area member nation.

The Czech Republic is a country in Central Europe.

The Czech Republic has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 78,868 km2 and a population of 10,538,275 people as of 2015. Czechs make up 2.1 percent of the EU’s overall population. Prague is the capital, and Czech is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €163,947 billion. The Czech Koruna is the currency of the Czech Republic (CZK). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

The Czech Republic has 21 members in the European Parliament and has held the rotating presidency of the EU Council. Since December 21, 2007, the Czech Republic has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Denmark

Denmark has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1973, with a physical area of 42,924 km2 and a population of 5,659,715, according to 2015. The Danish people make up 1.1 percent of the EU’s overall population. Denmark’s capital is Copenhagen, and Danish is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €266.244 billion. The Danish Krone is the country’s currency (DKK). A parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the country.

Between 1973 and 2012, Denmark had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU seven times, with 13 members in the European Parliament. Since March 25, 2001, Denmark has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Estonia

Estonia has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 45,227 km2 and a population of 1,313,271 people as of 2015. Estonians make about 0.3 percent of the EU’s overall population. Tallinn is the capital, and Estonian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €20.461 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2011, Estonia’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Estonia has six members in the European Parliament and will be the first country to hold the rotating presidency of the EU Council in the first half of 2017. Since December 21, 2007, Estonia has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Finland

Finland has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995, with a geographical area of 338,440 km2 and a population of 5,471,753 people as of 2015. The Finnish people make up 1.1 percent of the EU’s overall population. Finland’s capital is Helsinki, and Finnish and Swedish are the official languages. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €207.220 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Finland’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Finland has 13 members in the European Parliament and has twice held the rotating chair of the European Council, in 1999 and 2006. Since March 25, 2001, Finland has been a member of the Schengen Area.

France

France has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a land area of 633,187 km2 and a population of 66,415,161 people as of 2015. The French make up 13.1% of the EU’s overall population. Its capital is Paris, and French is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €2.184 trillion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, France’s currency is the Euro (€). A semi-presidential republic governs the country.

Between 1959 and 2008, France had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU 13 times, with 74 seats in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, France has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Germany

Germany is a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a land area of 357,376 km2 and a population of 81,197,537 people as of 2015. The Germans make up 16% of the EU’s overall population. Berlin is the capital, and German is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €3.026 trillion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Germany’s currency has been the Euro (€). A federal parliamentary republic governs the country.

Between 1958 and 2007, Germany had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU 11 times, with 96 members in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, Germany has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Greece

Greece has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1981, with a land area of 131,957 km2 and a population of 10,858,018 people as of 2015. Greeks make about 2.1 percent of the EU’s overall population. Its capital is Athens, and Greek is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €176.023 billion. Since joining the eurozone on January 1, 2001, Greece’s currency has been the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

 

Between 1983 and 2014, Greece held the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU five times, gaining 21 members in the European Parliament. Since January 1, 2000, Greece has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Hungary

Hungary has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 93,011 km2 and a population of 9,855,571 people as of 2015. Hungarians make up 1.9 percent of the European Union’s overall population. Budapest is the capital, and Hungarian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €108.748 billion. The Hungarian Forint is Hungary’s currency (HUG). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Hungary has 21 members in the European Parliament and has held the rotating chair of the European Council in 2011. Since December 21, 2007, Hungary has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Ireland

Ireland has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1973, with a land area of 69,797 km2 and a population of 4,628,949 people as of 2015. Irish people make up 0.9 percent of the EU’s overall population. Ireland’s capital is Dublin, and Irish and English are the official languages. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €214.623 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Ireland’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Between 1975 and 2013, Ireland had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU seven times, with 11 seats in the European Parliament. Ireland is not a Schengen Area member country.

Italy

Italy has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a total area of 302,073 km2 and a population of 60,795,612 people as of 2015. The Italians make about 12% of the EU’s overall population. Its capital is Rome, and Italian is the country’s official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €1.636 trillion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Italy’s currency has been the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Between 1959 and 2014, Italy had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU 12 times, with 73 seats in the European Parliament. Since October 26, 1997, Italy has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Latvia

Latvia has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004. It has a land area of 64,573 km2 and a population of 1,986,096, according to 2015. Latvians make up 0.4% of the EU’s overall population. Riga is the capital, and Latvian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €24.378 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2014, Latvia’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Latvia has eight members in the European Parliament and was the first country to hold the rotating chair of the EU Council in 2015. Since December 21, 2007, Latvia has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Lithuania

Lithuania has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 65,286 km2 and a population of 2,921,262 people as of 2015. Lithuanians make up 0.6% of the EU’s overall population. Vilnius is the capital, and Lithuanian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €37.124 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2014, Lithuania’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Lithuania has 11 members in the European Parliament and has held the rotating presidency of the European Union Council in 2013. Since December 21, 2007, Lithuania has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a land area of 2,586 km2 and a population of 562,958 people as of 2015. Luxembourgers make up 0.1% of the EU’s overall population. Luxembourg is the capital, and the official languages are French and German. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €52.112 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Luxembourg’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the country.

 

Luxembourg has six seats in the European Parliament and 12 times held the rotating chair of the European Council between 1960 and 2015. Since March 26, 1995, Luxembourg has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Malta

Malta has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 315 km2 and a population of 429,334 people as of 2015. Maltese people make up 0.1 percent of the EU’s overall population. Valletta is the capital, and Maltese is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €8.796 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2008, Malta’s currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Malta has six members in the European Parliament and will be the first country to hold the rotating chair of the EU Council in 2017. Since December 21, 2007, Malta has been a member of the Schengen Area.

The Netherlands is a country in Europe.

The Netherlands has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1958, with a land area of 41,542 km2 and a population of 16,900,726 people as of 2015. The Dutch people make up 3.3 percent of the EU’s overall population. Its capital is Amsterdam, and Dutch is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €678,572 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, the Netherlands’ currency is the Euro (€). A parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the country.

Between 1960 and 2016, the Netherlands had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU 12 times, with 26 seats in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, the Netherlands has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Poland

Poland has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a geographical area of 612,679 km2 and a population of 38,005,614 people as of 2015. The Polish people make up 7.5 percent of the EU’s overall population. Warsaw is the capital, and Polish is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €427.737 billion. The Polish Zloty is the country’s currency (PLN). A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Poland has 51 members in the European Parliament and has held the rotating chair of the European Council in 2011. Since December 21, 2007, Poland has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Portugal

Portugal has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1986, with a land area of 92,226 km2 and a population of 10,374,822 people as of 2015. The Portuguese make about 2% of the EU’s overall population. Lisbon is the capital, and Portuguese is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €179.379 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 1999, Portugal’s currency is the Euro (€). A semi-presidential republic governs the country.

Between 1992 and 2007, Portugal had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU three times, with 21 seats in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, Portugal has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Romania

Romania has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 2007, with a land area of 238,391 km2 and a population of 19,870,647 people as of 2015.

Romanians make up 3.9 percent of the EU’s overall population. Bucharest is the capital, and Romanian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €160.353 billion. The Romanian Leu is the country’s currency (RON). A semi-presidential republic governs the country.

Romania has 32 members in the European Parliament and will be the first country to hold the rotating chair of the EU Council in 2019. Romania is not a Schengen Area member nation.

Slovakia

Slovakia has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a land area of 49,035 km2 and a population of 5,421,349 people as of 2015. Slovaks make up 2.2% of the EU’s overall population. Bratislava is the capital, and Slovak is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €78.071 billion. Since joining the Eurozone on January 1, 2009, Slovakia’s currency is € (Euro). Slovakia’s political system is a parliamentary republic.

Slovakia presently holds the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU for the first time, with 13 representatives in the European Parliament. Since March 26, 1995, Slovakia has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Slovenia

Slovenia has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004, with a total area of 20,273 km2 and a population of 2,062,874 people as of 2015. Slovenians make up 0.4 percent of the EU’s overall population. Slovenia’s capital is Ljubljana, and Slovenian is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €38.543 billion. Slovenia’s currency is the Euro (€), which it adopted on January 1, 2007, when it joined the Eurozone. A parliamentary republic governs the country.

Slovenia has eight members in the European Parliament and formerly had the rotating chair of the European Union Council. Since December 21, 2007, Slovenia has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Spain

Since January 1, 1986, Spain has been a member of the European Union. It has a land area of 505,944 km2 and a population of 46,449,565 people in 2015. The Spanish make up 9.1% of the EU’s overall population. Madrid is the capital of Spain. The GDP of the country is €1.081 trillion. Spain’s official language is Spanish. A parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the country. Between 1989 and 2010, Spain had the rotating presidency of the Council of the EU four times, with 54 seats in the European Parliament. Spain uses the Euro (€) as its currency and has been a member of the Eurozone since January 1, 1999. Since March 26, 1995, Spain has been a member of the Schengen Area.

Sweden

Sweden has been a member of the European Union since January 1, 1995, with a land area of 438,574 km2 and a population of 9,747,355 people as of 2015. Swedes make about 1.9 percent of the EU’s overall population. Stockholm is the capital, and Swedish is the official language. In 2015, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was €444.235 billion. The Swedish Krona is the country’s currency (SEK). A parliamentary constitutional monarchy governs the country.

Sweden has 20 members in the European Parliament and has twice held the rotating chair of the European Council, in 2001 and 2009. Since March 25, 2001, Sweden has been a member of the Schengen Area.

 

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